08 Ene 2021

2005a). Here, we used FISH-based karyotyping in concert with analysis of chromosome lengths, arm lengths, and arm ratios to establish a size-based nomenclature for sorghum chromosomes. 7 km NW of Windjana T/O on Gibb River Rd, NT, AustraliaÂ, East Africa, seeds obtained from G. Liang, Kansas State UniversityÂ, Colchicine-induced autotetraploid by G. Liang, Kansas State UniversityÂ, Copyright © 2021 Annals of Botany Company. SBI-01 is morphologically the most distinct chromosome of the sorghum haploid complement. Sorghum and maize are both diploid plants with 10 chromosomes, 2n = 20 (Lee, 2004, Obilana, 2004). The most recognizable chromosome number transition is whole-genome duplication (WGD), or more generally polyploidy, which due to the recent finding that many seemingly diploid species have in fact … The sequenced reads were mapped to the sorghum reference genome 2 assembly (version … 1991), for the purpose of molecular size estimation, it is important to target metaphase, i.e., when molecular density is most uniform along the chromosome long axis and relative lengths most accurately reflect relative molecular size. The 5A genes were used to search for syntenic relationships between grass genomes. The unified nomenclature system for chromosomes and linkage groups of line BTx623 provide a reasonable basis for a genomic nomenclature for S. bicolor in that this line is readily available, highly inbred, and extensively used for genetic, breeding, and genomics research. The karyotype of BTx623 is grossly similar to those of other sorghum accessions and cultivars (Magoon and Shambulingappa 1960; Magoon and Ramana 1961; Magoon et al. 2. in which chromosome number is built by units of ten (i.e. Ten is the lowest haploid chromosome number in . It provides a cyto-genomic approach in which linkage group markers and cytological markers are integrated. The number of bases incorporated into the genome, the contiguity of the sequence, and the accuracy of the sequence improved in version 3. Adoption of a common nomenclature for sorghum linkage groups will facilitate the integration of data and genomic resources developed by independent research laboratories. A FISH-based karyotype of S. bicolor inbred line BTx623 was developed, in which chromosomes were ordered and designated according to total length at metaphase, namely SBI-01 (longest) to SBI-10 (shortest). The NOR of S. bicolor Combine Kafir 60 is located in the middle of the fifth longest chromosome (Yu et al. Cytogenetically, sorghum is a diploid of 2n = 2x = 20 where 2n is the somatic chromosome number having two complete sets (2x) of chromosomes and a chromosome number of 20. 2002; Anderson et al. Distal regions of euchromatin and pericentromeric regions of … Chromosomal locations of SWEET, SUT, INV, SPS, ... and data analysis and drafted the manuscript. Sorghum nitidum is also a perennial diploid with 2n = 10, 20 and is found in Queensland, New Guinea, and … The patterns of signals enable FISH-based recognition of each chromosome pair and associate specific linkage groups with specific chromosomes. Stiposorghum. Determine crossability of wild species to domestic sorghum. The lack of a common nomenclature system for sorghum linkage groups, however, has made it difficult and cumbersome to compare and use results obtained by different groups. Thus, the designation of relative arm sizes at metaphase should connote relative molecular size as well. We do not retain these email addresses. Main determinant is the karyotype, referring to the number, as well as the size and shape of … A phylogenetic tree based on ITS1, Adh1 and ndhF grouped the species of the genus Sorghum into one distinct monophyletic group, but including two sister lineages, one with x=5, the other with x=10 as basic chromosome numbers. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide … Sign up to receive alert notifications of new articles. 1994; Xu et al. The genome contains a high level of repeats (61%). We thank William L. Rooney, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, for providing seed for mitotic preparations. 1992; Chittenden et al. The size-based nomenclature for BTx623 represents a reasonable choice as the standard for a unified chromosome nomenclature for use by the sorghum research community. In addition, the molecular cytology of three sorghum chromosomes has been analyzed in detail using genetically mapped BAC clones and FISH (I slam-F aridi et al. For linkage groups that relate well to the structure of the BTx623 genome, we suggest that they be referred to analogously, as LG-01 to LG-10 and that arms be oriented as is customary in karyotypes: p (short) arm at the top and q (long) arm at the bottom (Figure 2). 1997; Ming et al. Relative to the karyotyping convention (shorter arms at top), the orientations of linkage groups were concordant for SBI-01, -02, -04, -05, -06, -07, and -10, but inverted for SBI-03, -08, and -09 (Figure 2). Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. Relationship of the FISH-based karyotype of sorghum and the linkage groups composing the various linkage maps of the sorghum genome. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. Sorghum bicolor Genome View a sample region of chromosome 1 or select a region above: Genome / Gene Models The current genome assembly displayed at SbGDB is version JGI Sbi1. Annotation of genes and other features in the sorghum genome. FISH-identified chromatid arms were measured and averaged to determine the length for each arm of the genome. number of resistant accessions are present in the temperate-adapted germplasm; other exotic sources of resistance are not currently available for breeding programs. each of the 10 chromosome pairs of sorghum in at least two of the translocations, was used to determine which chromosomes carried genes conditioning dhurrin content of sorghum seedlings. Parasorghum. 1998, 2000; Boivin et al. 2000). Subscribe via email. As detailed in the methods, we combined SNPs that are within 1cM in genetic distance to construct a genetic map with 381 bins (bin map) with varying SNP numbers in each bin (File S3). The centromere position of each chromosome was identified using the centromere-specific probe pCEN38, as previously described by Islam-Faridi et al. Accession number, life form and origin of 21 Sorghum species analysed for DNA content and chromosome number Herbarium Accession Life Species voucher no.1 form Collection … Despite this, a high-quality genome sequence was assembled from homozygous sorghum genotype BTx623 using the whole-genome shotgun technique. Both belong to the Andropogoneae subfamily. Millsp. Sorghum bicolor has a haploid chromosome number of 10, containing 530 Mb with 33,000 protein-coding genes. 2008 ). Sorghum leiocladumwas reported to have 2n= 20 chromosomes but a new number of 2n= 10 was counted. 2002). Sorghum is an interesting genus having a large number of well-recognized species taxonomically classified into five subgenera. In addition to its distinctive length (5.11 μm), SBI-01 is one of only two submetacentric pairs and is the only “satellite” chromosome. On the other hand, the sorghum association panel (SAP) comprises multiple resistance sources that have not been utilized in sorghum breeding … Without FISH, reliable identification of all metaphase chromosomes would have been very difficult if not impossible, because distinctive features tend to vanish as chromatin becomes highly contracted. Main determinant is the karyotype, referring to the number, as well as the size and shape of the chromosomes of an individual. Sorghum is reflected in the chromosome number of the species belonging to the different subgenera (Figure 1). It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. 1984). 1. chromosome number found in . 792) for the 21 Sorghum species studied, based upon combined ITS/ndhF sequences. For most well-studied genomes, linkage group nomenclature and chromosomal designations are integrated and are usually based on biological parameters, e.g., chromosome size, arm length, and arm orientation (Werner et al. We discovered a 45 kb sorghum BAC (22B2) that differentially hybridizes to centromere regions of 10 of the 20 chromosomes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. Of these common markers included, 251 were selected as bridge markers on the 10 sorghum chromosomes, i.e. Because NORs contract differentially late in the cell cycle and are otherwise very long, overall length of the NOR-bearing arm, SBI-01p, actually exceeds that of the long arm (SBI-01q) until the chromatin contraction process is nearly complete, i.e., at metaphase. At present, there is no suitable answer to this question, but there has been discussion about the evolution of chromosome number. BTx623 contained an exceptionally long pair of chromosomes, SBI-01, eight pairs of metacentric chromosomes closely graded in size, SBI-02, -03, -04, -05, -07, -08, -09, and -10, and one pair of midsized submetacentric chromosomes, SBI-06. Scatter plot representing the distribution of marker skewness of the six component sorghum maps, each dot representing one molecular marker.Vertical solid bars distinguish the 10 chromosomes, along the total map distance (x axis).The y axis details the log2 value of the ratio of the number of individuals carrying the A allele on the number of individuals carrying the B allele. Linkage group identities and homologies were determined for metaphase chromosomes of Sorghum bicolor (2n = 20) by FISH of landed BACs. Seven accessions of S. … 1991). The only secondary constriction and nucleolus organizing region (NOR) observed in BTx623 was located near the centromere in the short arm of chromosome 1, SBI-01p. The 2C DNA content, 2n chromosome number and x = 5 genome size are indicated next to each species. (1991), respectively, but means of evaluation were lacking and their relationship to molecular markers and genomic resources remains unknown. 2000; Haussmann et al. Relative lengths of chromosomes in FISH-karyotyped metaphase spreads of the elite inbred BTx623 were used to estimate the molecular size of each chromosome and to establish a size-based nomenclature for sorghum chromosomes (SBI-01 … Asterisks denote signals from the 17 BACs shown in Figure 1. Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant C4 grass used for the production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for C4 grasses due to its relatively small genome (approximately 800 Mbp), diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other C4 grass genomes. The six sorghum lines contained a large number of high-confidence genes, with Hongyingzi in particular possessing 104 unique genes. The relationship between sorghum chromosomes and many of the published sorghum linkage maps is also shown in Table 1. Following overnight incubation at 37°, slides were rinsed at 40° for 5 min in a series of washes consisting of 2× SSC, 50% formamide in 2× SSC, 2× SSC, and 4× SSC plus 0.2% Tween 20, respectively. Lengths of the remaining chromosomes followed a somewhat bimodal distribution, with SBI-02, -03, -04, and -05 constituting the group of longer chromosomes (3.87–3.44 μm) and SBI-06, -07, -08, -09, and -10 constituting the group of shorter ones (3.15–2.97 μm). However, the numbers of putative orthologs provided only a global overview. The arm ratio (average long arm/short arm ratio), total chromosome length (short arm + long arm), and relative chromosome length (length of the individual chromosome/total length of all chromosomes in the genome) were calculated for each chromosome in the complement. Traditionally, it has been assumed … Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. is five and most polyploid species are autopolyploids. For karyotyped images, DAPI-stained chromosomes were measured using Optimas v6.0 (Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). a.async=true;a.type="text/javascript";b.parentNode.insertBefore(a,b)}, 1); Backcross progenies and parental plants were started in the greenhouse, and 100 plants of each backcross and … Lengths of arms were determined to orient linkage groups relative to a standard karyotypic layout (short arms at top). The lowest haploid. NORs in most S. bicolor genotypes (and a number of other Sorghum species) occur in medial locations of the largest chromosome of the genome (Magoon and Shambulingappa 1960; Magoon and Ramana 1961; Magoon et al. and DBI-0321578 (P.E.K., J.E.M., and R.R.K.). However, a temporary constriction occurs in the fifth largest chromosome of a variety of S. bicolor cultivated for silage, in addition to the major constriction in its largest chromosome (Gu et al. Although highly repetitive, the genome is more tractable for sequencing than its close relative, Zea mays. One species is grown for grain, whil… The two significant SNPs at the end of chromosome 6 are close to a locus for sorghum height identified in a separate sorghum MAGIC population (QTL-6) . Recognizing the key developmental stages of sorghum can aid in making critical management decisions. Some salient plant traits, such as stem diameter and water content, and their relationship to other important biomass-related traits are so far poorly understood. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. Progress 06/01/02 to 05/30/07 Outputs Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) Characterize and use wild sorghum species with varying numbers of chromosomes. In contrast, identification of sorghum chromosomes by simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of a landed BAC cocktail was devised to establish a FISH-based karyotypic system for sorghum (Kim et al. Copyright © 2021 by the Genetics Society of America. Bar indicates 1.5 μm for metaphase chromosomes and 50 cM for linkage maps. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.104.035980, Evidence for a Tumor Suppressor Role for the, Targeted Heritable Mutation and Gene Conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in, Chromosome Identification and Nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor. The medial position seen in BTx623 is of interest, but not unique. FISH-karyotypic analysis of parents and meiotic analysis of their F1 hybrids might alert researchers to perturbations that could otherwise cryptically distort linkage maps and predictions derived from them or preclude expected genetic gains. The goal of this study was to elucidate major patterns in Sorghum genome evolution, particularly n=5 vs. n=10 genomes. Images were taken from an Olympus AX-70 epifluorescence microscope (Olympus America, Melville, NY) equipped with standard filter cubes, a Peltier-cooled monochrome 1.3 megapixel Sensys camera (Photometrics, Tucson, AZ), and MacProbe v.4.2.3 digital imaging system (Applied Imaging, San Jose, CA). The ability to reliably identify contracted chromosomes facilitated development of a standardized karyotype (ideogram) for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Each letter corresponds to a linkage group (Menz et al. Abstract. In this study, PH and FL were not significantly correlated (Table S2), an unexpected finding compared to many other sorghum studies ( Lin et al. More than 800 markers mapped in sorghum are derived from other taxa (hence serve as comparative anchors) and additional sorghum markers have been mapped directly in other taxa, or can be plotted based on sequence similarity. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The diploid genome (~730 Mb) has a haploid chromosome number of 10. Conventional and C-band karyotypes of Sorghum species were reported by Gu et al. 2002). Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Similarly, E. frumentacea appears to have a variable chromosome number (CCDB, undated), and cultivated strains are also hexaploid (Yabuno, 1962). The chromosome number of Saccharum ranges from 2 n = 36 to 170 (D aniels and R oach 1987; J. E. I rvine, unpublished data), while chromosome number of Sorghum ranges from 2 n = 10 to 40 (D oggett and P rasada R ao 1995). 1994; Pereira et al. QTL of base to flag length (red), flag to rachis length (magenta), plant height (orange), number of nodes (blue) and days to flower (green) on ten sorghum chromosomes. Chromosome Studies in Sorghum I Arun Kumar Sharma and (Miss) Dipti Bhattacharjee Cytogenetics Laboratory, Botany Department, Calcutta University, Calcutta-19, India Received March 18, 1957 Introduction Studies in the cytology and breeding behaviour of different species of Sorghum have been made by a number of workers at different centres (Longley 1932; Huskins & Smith 1.923, 1934 &c.; … These sorghum chromosomes … 1964; Bennett and Laurie 1995; Sang and Liang 2000). Because sorghum as restriction fragment length polymorphisms and maize have a haploid chromosome number of ten, (RFLPs) to map the genomesof two species for a they are thought to represent ancient polyploids de- common set of markers (loci). The chromosomal location of each BAC was determined by integrating the BACs with the sorghum genetic map (Klein et al., 2000) or by BAC- homologs mapped to sorghum chromosome … Sorghum in different Languages: Cholam ( Tamil ), Jonna ( Telugu ), Searjam ( Malayalam ), ... Large number of varieties/hybrids with higher yield potential than that of local has been released. SK participated in the breeding of the sorghum SIL-05 (line number 89) and provided the seeds. 1994; Dufour et al. However, it is not the diploid chromosome number alone that determines the ability of two parents to readily form a hybrid. - Genome Size of Sorghum 221 Table 1. The tree was rooted u… 1. chromosome number found in . Linkage group identities and homologies were determined for metaphase chromosomes of Sorghum bicolor (2n = 20) by FISH of landed BACs. 1992; Fransz et al. Sorghum grande is a perennial diploid with a chromosome number of 30 or 40 (2n = 30, 40), distributed in the Northern Territory (isolated in Katherine region) and Queensland, Australia. 2002; K im et al. The red rectangle represents the sugarcane BACs. Relative lengths of chromosomes in FISH-karyotyped metaphase spreads of the elite inbred BTx623 were used to estimate the molecular size of each chromosome and to establish a size-based nomenclature for sorghum chromosomes (SBI-01–SBI-10) and linkage groups (LG-01 to LG-10). The three-letter acronym SBI designates the genus and species, and the two-digit numeric code denotes the chromosome number. a.src=document.location.protocol+"//script.crazyegg.com/pages/scripts/0042/1390.js? 1964; Bennett and Laurie 1995; Sang and Liang 2000). Reference (see below) 32 Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Sorghum between two gene pools (GP 1 and GP 2) is possible; however, usually diffi cult to achieve. 2002). Sorghum bicolor is a widely grown cereal crop, particularly in Africa, ranking 5th in global cereal production. Data were exported to a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel) and analyzed. Each trait-associated SNP and annotated genes located within a 50 kb window up and downstream from each trait-associated SNP for each GWAS analysis shown in Figure 5 (d) and (e) and S5 are provided in Additional file S1 . The chromosome number for E. esculenta appears to be variable, from 2n = 36, 42, 48, 54 to 2n = 72 (CCDB, undated), but cultivated strains are hexaploid (Aoki and Yamaguchi, 2008). 2002; Menz et al. A phylogenetic tree based on ITS1, Adh1 and ndhF grouped the species of the genus Sorghum into one distinct monophyletic group, but including two sister lineages, one with x=5, the other with x=10 as basic chromosome numbers. S. bicolor has a chromosome base number of 2n = 20 and, like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is the C4 type. Chromosome Number of Different Crop Material Agronomy Horticulture Plant Pathology Entemology Plant Breeding Genetics Current Affairs Populations from the USA and Canada are of Mediterranean origin and are a tetraploid ecotype. Cytogenetically, sorghum is a diploid of 2n = 2x = 20 where 2n is the somatic chromosome number having two complete sets (2x) of chromosomes and a chromosome number of 20. The consistent use of two digits will facilitate data sorting by computers. 2000; Kong et al. Chromosomes are depicted with the shorter arm in the top position. Rice chromosomes 5 and 10 as well as sorghum chromosomes 1 and 9 were substantially enriched for putative orthologs and outnumbered the remaining chromosomes of the respective genomes. Therefore, the analysis was refined on the basis of rice and sorghum synteny. The tetraploid S. halepense (2n=40) will hybridize with diploid cultivated sorghum, Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench (2n=20), and the progeny are usually sterile triploids which may be … Approach (from AD-416) Obtain chromosome counts and determine genome size for 19 wild sorghum species. The locations of the BACs were based on the overgo probe hits on the sorghum scafold sequence. Other considerations are the types of sex chromosomes, lethal genes, and polyploidy. The genome contains a high level of repeats (61%). It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. HK grew the sorghum plant, carried out the quantification of their sucrose content, and revised the manuscript. For single-probe FISH, the hybridization mixture (25 μl) contained 10 ng of labeled BAC probe DNA, 50% formamide, 10% dextran sulfate, and 2× SSC. Chromosomal locations of sugar-related genes in sorghum. Price et al. 1998; Künzel et al. The lowest haploid. If maize underwent an allotetraploid event after the divergence of maize from sorghum, why do these plants have an identical number of chromosomes? For the 44 sorghum natural variation lines 1 a total of 7,915,312,158 post-filtered NGS paired-end reads (generated using Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology) were analyzed. LINKAGE mapping of Sorghum has progressed quickly, using diverse mapping populations and markers (Whitkus et al. Among 335 accessions available to breeders from a previously genotyped sorghum association panel (SAP), we found that 75 were resistant to anthracnose. Such structural differences between parents can complicate linkage analysis (e.g., see Bowers et al. Chromosome number is a remarkably variable feature of eukaryotic genomes with variations in the somatic chromosome number known to exist at all levels of taxonomic resolution. However, caution must be exercised in applying the nomenclature to other mapping endeavors because the incidence of structural rearrangements in sorghum is inadequately studied, so it remains reasonably likely that genomes of mapping parents differ structurally. Home; Contact Us; Yield Results; Products; Corn; Sorghum; Sorghum Forage; Sorghum Sudangrass The diploid races originated in south Eurasia. Cytogenetic maps of sorghum chromosomes 3-7, 9, and 10 were constructed on the basis of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of approximately 18-30 BAC probes mapped across each of these chromosomes. The diploid genome (~730 Mb) has a haploid chromosome number of 10. For FISH of the multi-probe cocktail from 17 BAC clones, 50× Cot-1 DNA was added to the probe mixture, which was denatured at 90° for 10 min, chilled on ice, and then annealed for 30 min before application to the slide. The medial position seen in BTx623 is of interest, but not unique. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species. Chromosomes are numbered according to size and linkage groups are labeled alphabetically. Chromosomes 5 and 10 showed relatively high SNP densities, whereas whole-genome diversity in this population was low. The BAC 79A20 was corresponding to an arm of the sorghum chromosome … Cytogenetic and genetic analyses showed that sorghum chromosomes are comprised of distal regions of high gene density that exhibit high rates of recombination and large heterochromatic pericentromeric regions characterized by low gene density and low rates of recombination (Kim et al., 2005). Several recent studies have identified loci responsible for broad-spectrum resistance to anthracnose in sorghum accessions on chromosomes 5 and 9 [17, 21, 25,26,27]; however, widespread use of these resistance sources may reduce their durability. Chromosome number Locality Sorghum × almum Parodi-1 Liu 237 (ILRI 13515) IBSC/US Perennial 2n = 2x = 40 Ethiopia S. × almum-2 Liu 432 (PI 190579) IBSC Argentina S. × drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) We excluded 74 unlinked SNPs and obtained an initial genetic map with a total of 616 markers on the ten sorghum chromosomes. Prior to FISH, chromosomal DNA on slides was denatured at 70° in 100 μl of 70% formamide in 2× SSC on a hot block for 1.5 min followed by dehydration in 70% ethanol at −20° and 85, 95, and 100% ethanol at room temperature, respectively. 1998; Tao et al. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Biofuel made from agricultural products has the potential in contribute to a stable supply of fuel for growing energy demands. The goal of this study was to elucidate major patterns in Sorghum genome evolution, particularly n=5 vs. n=10 genomes. The identity of the authors' accession of S. leiocladumwas verified by senior taxonomist Ian Cowie at the Darwin Herbarium. It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. Correlation between mitotic metaphase chromosomes and linkage groups of sorghum using the map of Menz et al. The centromere for each chromatid was identified by the primary constriction and also by FISH of the centromere-associated sequence pCEN38 (Zwick et al. Sorghum is reflected in the chromosome number of the species belonging to the different subgenera (Figure 1). The BACs were located on the sorghum linkage map as described by Klein et al. Chromosome numbers of the 21 sorghum species studied are listed in Table 2. 2002). The stages are based on sorghum structures as they develop over the life of the plant.A sorghum plant has 10 official stages of growth and development, starting with emergence (Stage 0) and ending with physiological maturity of the grain (Stage 9). The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. The adoption of a common reference for nomenclature of sorghum chromosomes and a related nomenclature for linkage groups would facilitate development of gramineous genomics, e.g., by enhancing communication between research groups and data usage across genome maps. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Each translocation stock was crossed and backcrossed once to a low-dhur­ rin line of sudangrass. 1999; Peng et al. 2002; Bowers et al. Orthologous chromosomal locations of selected 20 sugarcane BACs on each chromosome arm of the 10 sorghum chromosomes. "+Math.floor(new Date().getTime()/3600000); In sorghum, 13 stem diameter QTL have been reported on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 in a S. bicolor SS79 x M71 RIL population, using 157 AFLP, SSR, and EST-SSR markers (Shiringani et al. Goals / Objectives The broader objective of the project is the improvement of sorghum through genetic manipulation of a number of critical biotic (disease and parasitic weed resistance), abiotic (drought and cold tolerance), nutritional quality (protein quality, digestibility, carotenoids), and bioenergy (feedstock) traits for the benefit of both domestic and international agriculture. 2n = 10, 20, 30, 40). and . In most higher eukaryotes, NORs are situated in short arms of subacrocentric or submetacentric chromosomes. In addition to its distinctive length (5.11 μm), SBI-01 is one of only two submetacentric pairs and is the only “satellite” chromosome.

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